Vine and the Vine Growing in the Area of Kras
by Irena Mrak and Blaz Repe
Kras is an area between Vipava valley and Trieste bay. In literature
this part of Slovenia has different synonyms: Kras, Sežana Kras,
Komen Kras or even Trieste Kras. When we think of Kras a stereotypic
image is brought up: a barren, waste landscape, with poor red
soil being interrupted only by rocky limestone areas. Nowadays
Kras is entirely different; it is mostly green landscape overgrown
by meadows or even pine forest (Pinus Nigra). One of the main
characteristics of Kras are vineyards, where farmers produce
famous wine – Kraški Teran. Although once a typical vineyard
cultural landscape is slowly being reforested. Pastures are
transformed into "gmajna," pathless areas of low bushes, surrounding
the vineyards. The vineyards are not renewed satisfactorily,
as they still were a few years ago. Despite the processes Kras
retains its specific image which separates it from the surrounding
sub Mediterranean landscapes.
The article deals with an area where the so called "Refošk"
vine is grown but in Kras this sort of vine produces wine Teran.
Part of the area extends also in the neighbouring Italy (Fig.
1), but it has not been included in the research.
Fig. 1: The research area – wine sub district Kras plateau and
its neighbouring area in Italy, where Teran can also be produced.
The research area coincides with wine sub district Kras plateau
(part of the wine district Kras). The sub district is limited
with the Slovene-Italian border to the west. The wine sub district
border crosses Veliki and Mali Medvedjak, Lenivec and Tabor
then drops past Gradišče near Sežana, crosses the road Sežana
– Štorje and goes around Vidmaršče where it turns directly north
all the way to the railway road Sežana – Divača. The border
then follows the railway road till the village of Merče and
Plešivica where it turns north again past the settlement of
Žirje till the hill Predlovec. The border follows the southern
line of land register unit Štorje till the contour line of 500
m, then it turns north till the contour line of 400 m which
it follows over Struga and the regional road Senožeče – Sežana
all the way to the local road Majcni – Griže (the hill Brdo
over Majcni). The sub district border then follows the local
road till the river Raša and stream Grižanski Potok. It leaves
out the village of Griže and follows the stream Grižanski Potok
up to the contour line 450 m. The border follows this contour
line under the village of Razguri and Bogo and then the contour
line 400 m under the village Dolenje till Ravnje where it drops
all the way to the point where the regional road Manče – Kobdilj
crosses the river Raša. The border then ascends the road till
the contour line 300 m, it encounters the settlements Kobdilj
and Štanjel and goes towards the local road Branik – Dutovlje.
From there the border drops till the crossroads for the village
of Lukovec; it follows this road, encounters Lukovec and, under
the hill Tolsti vrh, goes west. Above the settlement Mali Dol
it crosses Žlebinje and Komenšček where it hits the contour
line 400 m. It follows it above the settlement of Škrbina till
Železna Vrata (the pass on the road Lipa – Tabor at Dornberk)
where it follows the road to the village of Lipa and there it
hits the contour line 400 m again. The border goes above the
villages Lipa, Temnica and Novelo, under the hills Tabor and
Griža where it joins the field path Novelo-Podnakušnik. Then
it crosses Gmajne above the settlements Segeti and Lokvica,
it crosses the road Opatje Selo – Miren and joins the Slovene-Italian
border again. It follows it till the starting point at Veliki
Medvedjak (BRDNIK ET AL., 2000).
The physical geographic conditions for the vine growth in the
Kras area Kras is a plateau that lowers from southeast towards
northwest. In the west and south west it is limited by the range
of hills that detach Brestoviški Dol in Slovenia and Nabrežinski
dol in Italy. To the north Kras is detached from Vipava valley
by the range of hills named Črni Hribi (Trsteljsko hribovje).
Both hilly ranges have the so called Dinaric direction and are
The research area is mostly built of Cretaceous limestones,
which in the area of Komen settlement contain larger amounts
of quartz in form of lenses and knobs. Along with the limestone
weathering the red soil containing lots of quartz is produced.
The thickness of soil disables corrosion processes and that
is the reason why the surface karst processes are rarer than
in the area of pure limestone without quartz. The limestones
containing quartz are typical for the area among the settlements
of Dutovlje, Tomaj and Avber. The Paleocene strata are developed
as dark-grey micritic, partially clay Kozina limestone. Because
of the clay this limestone is less corroded than the Cretaceous
strata (BUSER, 1972, 1973).
Kras landscape is mostly influenced by the neighbouring flysh
landscapes. They were lowered and changed only in Quaternary
era, before that they were higher than the limestone surface.
From the Vipava and Trst non-limestone area the surface streams
were flowing to the research area, forming the fluvial relief
– the fossil fluvial material is still visible in some parts.
The corrosion intensified in Pleistocene period (RADINJA, 1972).
Today corrosion and humans are the strongest surface changers.
The corrosion result is the numerous dolines. In the research
area the dolines are not present only on dolomite. They emerge
on different kinds of limestone, which depends on chemical and
physical properties of rocks. In the study of land register
unit Krajna Vas (GAMS ET AL., 1971) the highest number (80)
of dolines per 100 hectares was defined on gray Cenomanian limestone.
Minimal altitude in the area is 37 m, maximum 643 m with an
average of 340 m. The major part of the research area has an
altitude from 250 to 299 m and 300 to 349 m. The highest percentage
of the research area (41.4%) is in the surface inclination unit
3°-6° (MRAK, 1997).
The vine growth highly depends on exposition. The relief features
can influence the values of accepted solar energy. Different
exposition and surface inclination influence the angle between
the sun rays and the Earth surface and together with this they
influence the amount of the accepted solar energy. Especially
higher relief features are presenting an obstacle for sun rays.
The surfaces in shadow are mostly receiving the diffusion part
of the insolation. The map of the energy of the quasi global
insolation shows that the annual amount of the quasi global
insolation is the highest in the sub Mediterranean Slovenia
where it exceeds the country’s mean value by 10% (GABROVEC,
The values of annual quasi global insolation show the sub Mediterranean
climate (Fig. 2) According to the exposition the sunny south
eastern, south western and southern slopes prevail together
with the flat areas – this is all favourable for the vine growth
Climatic conditions are mostly the result of geographical position
and relief characteristics of the research area. In our case
the area is slightly higher than the neighbouring areas. Its
edges are hilly and this is the main cause for the climatic
isolation and specific climatic conditions of the area. The
close to sea position has positive influence on the climate
and the mild sea influences are coming to the interior part
of the area mostly by Brestoviški Dol dry valley.
Partial isolation is the main reason that Karst climate also
has some continental characteristics that are mostly featured
in cold winters caused by cold air from the northeast. The consequence
is strong wind, called "burja". This wind can sometimes bring
snow in the area as soon as October and as late as April. The
close to sea position is featured with mild, warm southwest
wind, called "mornik". Melik mentions that the temperatures
are under 0 °C in average 40 days/year (MELIK, 1960).
Fig. 2: Average annual solar energy (MJ/m2)
Source: MRAK, REPE, 2001.
The close to sea position influences the precipitation amount
(1,570 mm/year) which differs towards north and northeast. The
precipitations are equally disposed throughout the year which
is typical for continental climate. The Mediterranean climate
characteristics can be noticed in October and December precipitation
climax. As a continental climate characteristic there is the
precipitation climax in May and June. January and February are
the driest months as well as August (MELIK, 1960) which is very
favourable for the vine growth - the plant in the phenophase
of ripening needs very little rain (Tab. 1).
Tab. 1 Vine phenophases
Source: MRAK, REPE, 2001.
Overall Kras has typical sub Mediterranean climate with some
continental characteristics. Typical are quite high summer temperatures
(mean monthly July temperature is 21 °C) and cold winters (mean
monthly January temperature is 2.5 °C) (Fig. 3) that are often
characterized by the bora cold winds – "burja". The growing
season lasts in average 221 days which is favorable for the
growth of the so called late sorts of vine. This is confirmed
also with the active temperature sum that is over 3300 °C (MRAK,
Fig. 3 Climatograph of Godnje, Komen and Novelo (1961-1990)
Source: Klimatografija Slovenije 1961.-1990., Temperature, Padavine
For vine growth water balance is of great importance (the difference
between the amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration).
The water balance indicates whether the area gets enough, too
much or not enough water (Fig. 4) (ŽIBERNA, 1992). The highest
moisture rate is at the Novelo pri Temnici station that also
gets the highest amount of precipitation. This station also
gets highest moisture surplus in the grape-ripening period –
from August to October, which is not good from the vine growth
point of view. The best conditions for vine growth according
to potential evapotranspiration and water balance are in the
area of the Godnje station. All the three stations have negative
water balance in July when there is less precipitation and the
evaporation is the highest.
Fig. 4 Potential evapotranspiration (according to Thorntwait)
in water balance (in mm)
Source: MRAK, REPE, 2002.
Some bio climatic indicators have shown that the research area
is highly suitable for vine growing (Tab. 2) (MRAK, 1997).
Tab. 2 Bio-climatic indicators
* insolation data is for the station Novelo pri Temnici Source:
The hydrothermic coefficient shows the research area is not
highly suitable for vine growth since the values are higher
than optimal. The heliothermic coefficient values are above
the optimal and the bio-climatic index values are not optimal.
The reason for the results can also be that the three indicators
do not consider local climatic conditions (MRAK, REPE, 2001).
According to the parent material two types of red or red to
brown soils can be found in Kras, known as "jerina" (chromic
cambisol). Formerly it was called terra rosa. Mildly leached
"ilovka" forms on purer limestones, while heavily leached "kremenica"
forms on Komen and Tomaj limestone strata. Kremenica weathers
much faster than ilovka. Particle size analysis showed appearance
of loam-clay and clay-loam textures which contain high percentages
of fine fractions which are in favour for vine growth. Soil
reaction (mildly acid to mildly alkaline) is also very suitable
(SUŠIN, 1968; LOVRENČAK, 1994; MRAK, 1997).
Fig. 5. Soil conditions on Kras
Source: MRAK, REPE, 2002.
Population and Settlement
Kras was already inhabited in the period of the Würm glaciation
when its close to sea position was a great advantage. The inhabitants
lived in caves and soon they started to breed cattle, sheep
and goats. The number of inhabitants was growing all the time
and in the Iron Age Kras was the most inhabited region in the
area of what is today Slovenia. They were mostly working in
forest, cutting the timber and by the times of the Roman invasion
the forests were mainly extracted. The Roman settlements were
built by the main roads. In the Middle Ages the Slavic tribes
inhabited the area and they continued to cut the trees and cultivate
the land by forest fires. The settlements were small villages
with houses built very close together. The fields were also
small and with irregular shapes (MELIK, 1960).
In the 15th century the forests were so damaged that a special
law was launched out to prevent the forest pasturing and all
other works in forests were surveyed. Despite that the region
turned to barren grounds. The pressures on forests were the
biggest in the 19 th century when Kras was over inhabited (ČEHOVIN,
The number of inhabitants was decreasing till the World War
II and after the war people started to migrate to bigger cities
especially in Italy.
Now days the research area has 64 settlements in which there
were 12 158 inhabitants in 1961 and 14,208 in 1991. Major centers
in the area are Sežana, Komen and Dutovlje. The small size settlements
with up to 200 inhabitants prevail (Tab. 3).
Tab. 3 The size of settlements in Kras area in 1991
Source: The Census 1991.
Besides the number of inhabitants their economic activity was
also important, showing the percentage of people dealing with
vine growing. We have used the data from the years 1961 and
1991, finding out the changes that occurred in this period of
time. As it was expected the percentage of employees in the
agriculture sector decreased and the percentage in industrial
and quaternary sector increased (Tab. 4). In 1961 26 settlements
had the percentage of people in agricultural sector over 50%
and in 1991 this was the case for only 5 settlements. The reasons
for the decrease were also in the natural conditions for agriculture
in the area of Kras that are not allowing the modern way of
farming. The fields are small and also the soil depth is only
sufficient in small dolines where only traditional way of farming
is possible. High percentage of inhabitants commute to work
in Sežana daily and they are farming in the afternoon. They
mostly cultivate the best arable land (CEHOVIN, 1986).
Tab. 4 Active population employed in industrial sectors
Source: The Census 1961 and 1991.
Land use and areas under vineyards in years 1961-2000
Data for years 1961, 1994 and 2000 were used to examine land
use in land register units (Figs. 6 and 7). The period is marked
with the following processes: decreasing of field and pasture
areas, increasing of forest areas, meadow areas remain nearly
unchanged, while vineyard areas decreased slightly.
Fig. 6 Vineyard areas in land register units (classes according
to the number of hectares)
Source: MRAK, 1997
In 1961 vineyards covered 3,174 hectares or 1.4% of the entire
research area. Land register units with the largest areas of
vineyards were Dutovlje, Tomaj, Križ, Avber, Komen, Kobdilj
and Utovlje. In 1994 vineyards covered 3,059 hectares or 1%
of the entire research area. The largest areas remained in aforementioned
land register units except Sežana which joined the group. Overall
the land use categories show the decrease of percentage of fields
from 8.5% in 1961 to 6.9% in 1994. The percentage of meadows
increased by 1% in thirty years, while percentage of pastures
decreased by 7%. Forest areas in the research area increased
Fig. 7 Vineyard area in land register units in the year 2000
Decrease of field and pasture areas corresponds with general
trends in decreasing of employed in primary sector, which is
also reflected in land use. Vineyards in Kras are very small
and therefore appropriate for spare time cultivation and vineyards
owners can afford employment in secondary and tertiary sectors.
That is the reason why vineyards are still being cultivated
and the areas remain the same. Pasture areas are decreasing
on the account of forests which are already suitable for economic
use. The process is reversed in comparison to the process in
previous centuries. The reason is similar to the previous one.
Decrease in percentage of farmers stimulates less livestock
and therefore less needs for pastures (MRAK, REPE, 2001).
Vineyard areas in land register units were divided in classes
according to the number of hectares. Most of the units fall
into 0.31-0.50 and 0.51-1.00 hectares class. The average of
more than 2.0 hectares through all examined years can be found
only in three land register units – Dutovlje, Križ and Tomaj.
Land register units with above average vineyard hectares, apart
from the aforementioned are Avber, Komen and Utovlje. Between
years 1961 and 1994 the increase in vineyard areas can be noticed
in land register units of Sežana, Kobdilj, Kopriva and Kostanjevica
na Krasu. The decrease was noticed in Komen, Tomačevica, Hruševica
and Sela na Krasu.
When we add data from year 2000, changes follow the same trends,
except for the vineyards which show slight tendency of increase.
Noticeable positive changes can be found in land register units
with the best conditions for vine growth (Dutovlje, Križ, Tomaj
and Pliskovica), while negative trends were spotted in Gorjansko,
Kobdilj and Komen. The percentage of forests still increases
on the account of pastures.
Tab. 5 Land register units in the research area.
Field and pasture abandoning, insufficient vineyard renewing
and reforesting are one of the greatest threats to Kras vine,
and Refošk sort is one of the most sensitive and therefore affected
Fig. 9 The over growing of former pasture
Source: MRAK, 1997.
Forest vegetation is claiming areas that were once carefully
cultivated and protected by men and so contributed to typical
cultural Karst landscape. At present this landscape fortunately
still remains a unique blend of natural processes and human
Refošk vineyards are also very sensitive to even slight changes
in microclimatic conditions. Those being calm, low depressions,
where higher values of air moisture cause diseases, especially
moulds. What is best for Refošk vine are well aired, opened
spaces, where burja plays an important role, especially its
strength and power. But reforesting of Kras significantly contributes
to much more humid local climate conditions. Native people can
say that "burja" is considerably weaker, and moulds as often
as never before. And everything due to "moist" air. Unfortunately
this is not apparent in meteorological data, which proves the
exactly reverse process. Available data are for three stations
in Kras (Fig. 10). Till the year 2000 only Godnje station was
still active, while Novelo and Komen ceased to work, in 1991
and 1998, respectivelly. But in all three cases, the decrease
in average year moist is obvious.
Fig. 10 Average year moist for Godnje, Komen and Novelo
Source: Klimatografija Slovenije: Relativna zračna vlaga 1961-2000,
Growing Refošk and making Teran is already mentioned in ancient
Greek and Roman times. The Greeks called it the Pretorian wine,
the Romans "Pucinium", but both were attributing medicinal characteristics
to Teran, which therefore called the "elixir of life". The vine
was thriving through entire middle ages on the edges of fields
and behind many stone walls. Much of the Refošk vine was destroyed
in the 19th century because of the wine louse and phyloxera.
But disaster was beneficial. Renewing was necessary and first
larger plantations were introduced.
During Italian occupation the law was prohibiting selling wine
containing less than 10% of alcohol (typical Teran has 9.0-10.5%
of alcohol). New sorts were introduced and the sale of Teran
dropped significantly. After the World War II it took quite
some time for Teran to regain its reputation and price which
it still has this day (VODOPIVEC, 1992).
Besides Refošk wine district Kras recommends also Rebula, Laški
Riesling, Malvazija, White Pinot, Sauvignon and Chardonnay,
allowed are also Grey Pinot, Prosseco, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon
and Blue Pinot. But Refošk is the most common being planted
on 80% of vine growing areas, and other sorts supplement to
broadening the assortment (VODOPIVEC, 1992).
Due to the specific and unique pedological and climatic conditions
Teran can be made from Refošk only here on Kras. "Kraški teran"
is a qualitative red wine of carmine red colour and higher quantities
of lactic and carbonic acids which contribute its pleasant sour
taste. Wine is rich in iron, tannin, colouring matters, vitamins
B and C and up to 15‰ or more of acids (VODOPIVEC, 1992). One
of the most important is the process of biological disacidificaton,
where malic transforms into lactic and carbonic acid (CERKVENIK,
Based on the oral sources, the data on vineyards in the wine
subdistrict Kras plateau are out-of-date, but above all they
are not uniformed. According to agro-map in 1985 there were
558 hectares of vineyards. Cadastral register shows 400 hectares,
while farm counseling service Sežana estimates 595 hectares.
Most up-to-date estimations indicate 708 hectares of vineyards
where Refošk is (Vitis vinifera L.cv.) grown on 465 hectares.
According to suitable pedological conditions Refošk vine could
be extended up to 800 hectares. There is also 40 hectares in
the neighbouring Italy where Teran can also be produced.
Administrative unit Sežana is setting up a register of winegrowers.
By december 2001, there were 780 winegrowers in Kras wine district
and 40 more that were registered in Gorica. Registered winegrowers
must own at least 500 m2 of vineyards, or less if the wine is
sold at the market. All registered winegrowers must give notice
about the entire crop, enlargement of vineyards and stocks.
According to the register farmers receive subsidies. There are
1,600 farms on Kras and this includes 12 ecological farms, 41
ecological vineyards and 38 farms where fruit production is
integrated. 42 individuals bottle their wine and for half of
them wine growing is their primary source of income.
Farmers and winegrowers are satisfactorily educated as the courses
(organized by Farming acceleration service Sežana) are well
attended. Nevertheless farmers have but a few problems. Subsidy
applications have to be filled in every year describing activities
yet to be carried out next year. Dead lines and form applications
change from year to year, many farmers entitled to state subsidy
do not get the needed money to expand or renew their vineyards.
Only to preserve the present condition on Kras every year 25-30
hectares of vineyard should be renewed. For the last three years
this number has not been reached. Only 15-20 hectares of vineyards
is renewed. In spite of this fact the sale of Teran is not decreasing,
it has stayed around average for the past 10 years. The reason
is an increased stress on environment, especially the usage
of fertilizers and pesticides which enables high yields despite
poor soil, old vines and the rigors of the weather.
Kras winegrowers wish to put Teran forward as a regionally protected
wine, origin and name and it would still be recognizable after
joining the European Union. Teran should be a sort of wine,
made out of Refošk vine which grows in Kras wine district, on
a specific parent material and soil and unique climate. The
reason lies in growing Refošk vine in Italy, where vine itself
is incorrectly called Teran. This many times results in "Teran"
wines that in none of the properties resemble the original one.
Another consequence leads to the fact that you can produce Teran
wherever you plant Refošk.
Wine that would deserve naming Teran ATN - Acknowledged Traditional
Naming should have the following properties (summarized and
reduced from BRDNIK ET AL., 2000):
1. Maximum yield of grapes in vineyard is 9,000 kg/ha.
2. Minimum sugar level for Teran PTP is 70°Oe and at grape-harvesting
grapes should be examined for highest quality (Ur.l. RS, No
3. Natural alcohol: at least 9.2 vol%.
4. Actual alcohol: 10.0-12.5 vol%.
5. Total acids: 7.0-10.0 g/l.
6. SO2: total up to 100 mg/l and free up to 28 mg/l; extract
at least 25 g/l; ash: at least 2g/l; etc.
7. Taste: vinic, pleasantly sour, reminding of raspberry or
red currant, full.
8. Colour: intensive, ruby red, possible violet shades.
9. Hue: at least 45°.
10. Scent: vinic, frutier (forest fruits).
Teran ATN should be entirely produced in Kras wine district
and in case of bottling packaging should be original:
1. Only bottled Teran ATN can be sold. Non bottled wine can
be sold only
inside Kras district wine on farms directly to
2. Before going to the market, wine must be examined and graded
authorised organisation for wine quality determination.
3. Bottled wine can be on the market for maximum two and a half
4. Original name and geographical origin is: Teran ATN, Kras.
5. Any other use of name Teran is prohibited.
Inside the Kras wine district there are three inner areas of
1. Area of maximum quality Teran: Tomaj, Avber, Dobravlje, Gradnje,
Ponikve, Šepulje, Dutovlje, Godnje, Kreplje, Kopriva, Skopo
2. Area of very good quality Teran: Pliskovica, Krajna Vas,
Mali in Veliki
Dol, Tublje, Hruševica, Kobjeglava, Komen, Dol,
Vrhovlje and Kazlje.
3. Area of good quality but untypical Teran: Gorjansko, Ovčji
Ivanji Grad. Differences in quality depend on acidity,
colour, taste and
alcohol content (VODOPIVEC, 1992).
Sežana Agricultural Cooperative
Majority of Teran wine is produced in agricultural cooperative
Sežana. Its primary goal is producing, keeping, storing and
selling Teran and that's why it was built in 1971.
Agricultural cooperative Sežana owns 40 hectares of vineyards
in vicinity of Komen and Sveto settlements, where majority of
vines represent Refošk. Land is partly rented by local farmers.
Agricultural cooperative Sežana pools approximately 200 members,
175 of them being active. For 2 of them vine growing is their
only source of income, others also work in local enterprises.
Some of them can produce up to 1,000 kg of grapes, but the average
ranges around some 100 kg of grapes per year. Part of the yearly
crop remains at home for domestic use. Average production of
wine is 5000 hectolitres/year, but is variable according to
the harvest. Due to the heavier burdening of vine and soils
(addition of pesticides and artificial fertilizers), production
used to be larger. Crop has been endangered in years with higher
amounts of rainfall which results in intensive sprinkling. Summer
storms and hail can seriously reduce crops. In 2002 almost entire
production of grapes was destroyed in the western part Kras
wine subdistrict by only one summer hail storm (Fig. 11).
Grape redemption amounts depend on the level of sugar. Agricultural
cooperative Sežana sells its wine mostly in Slovenia, but some
amounts are exported to the Unites States of America, Bosnia
and Herzegovina and Italy. At the moment demand for Teran is
large and exceeds the supplies.
Fig. 11 Before and after the hail storm in 2002
Source: REPE, 2002
Agricultural cooperative's plan is to increase the vineyard
areas and raise the production (Fig. 12). The process is very
slow since the farmers are not willing to give land for hire.
Slovenian farmers are emotionally attached to their land and
from that point of view the hire period is very long (25-30
Fig. 12 Vineyard renewal
Source: MRAK, 1997
The natural geographic characteristics of Kras enable good conditions
for vine growth. The plant which is known as "a plant of the
Sun" has in the research area so specific natural environment
that the vine sort Refošk gives a special type of wine called
Teran. The main factor that influences this is the parental
material and soil conditions. The vine Refošk on flysh gives
different wine – called Refošk. The sufficiently received solar
energy depending on relief characteristics enables longer growing
season and also the growth of so called late vine sorts. But
on the other hand Kras landscape is not allowing larger vineyards.
Due to specific surface conditions where dolines are prevailing
only small vineyards can be planted requiring traditional way
of cultivation with human labor involved. The vineyard enlargement
is also limited due to dispersed land ownership which is the
result of the specific inheritance in the area. In the inheritance
all children are involved and later on they all have the right
to decide about the future of the land. This is especially problematic
in case of renting the new land to plant new vineyards. The
rent in this case has to be for a long period and that is the
main reason why the owners hesitate to rent their land. But
the demand for the quality wine Teran is growing.
If Kras used to have problems with barren stony grounds and
different professionals were trying to find appropriate tree
species to reforest the area, nowadays the problem is opposite.
The over growing has already reached the critical level of endangering
the cultural landscape. The advancing forest has negative impact
on the vine Refošk - due to higher moisture rates the vine is
endangered by different diseases. The Teran production in comparison
with other wines in other wine districts is smaller and from
this point of view non-competitive. Entering the EU the Kras
wine district will be even less recognized among all other well
established and known European wine regions. The future of Teran
will only be in preserving its specialties and marketing its
uniqueness. The last will highly depend on respecting the regulations
on Teran growing and production, which is just a start in the
long way of protecting this kras wine trade mark.
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